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Plastic welding is the fusion of two pieces (usually of the same plastic type) with a directed hot air jet and plastic welding rod. Used increasingly for the manufacture of tanks, floats and other items. Useful for repair of pipework (either temporary or permanent).
Thermit welding is a group of welding processes in which fusion is produced by heating with superheated liquid metal resulting from a chemical reaction between a metal oxide and aluminium.
Welding is a process of joining of two metal surfaces that have been heated, melted, and fused together.
Goldschmidt process (thermite process) is a method of extracting metals by reducing the oxide with aluminium powder. Practically all the metallic oxides are reducible by this method, the chief exception being the oxide of magnesium. The thermite process was developed by the German chemist Hans Goldschmidt (1861-1923) in 1893.
Goldschmidt was originally interested in producing very pure metals, but he soon realized the value in welding, a process known as Thermit welding.
Helium was discovered by Pierre Jules César Janssen (France) and Sir William Ramsay (Scotland) in 1868. The origin of the name comes from the Greek word helios meaning sun. It is light, odourless, colourless inert gas. Second most abundant element in the universe. Helium is found in natural gas deposits from wells in Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. Used in balloons, deep sea diving and welding. Also used in very low temperature research.
Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford (Scotland) in 1772. The origin of the name comes from the Greek words nitron genes meaning nitre and forming and the Latin word nitrum (nitre is a common name for potassium nitrate, KNO3). It is colourless, odourless, generally inert gas. Minimally reactive at room temperature. A component of many organic and inorganic compounds. Makes up about 78 % of earth’s atmosphere. Nitrogen is obtained from liquid air by fractional distillation. Primarily to produce ammonia and other fertilizers. Also used in making nitric acid, which is used in explosives. Also used in welding and enhanced oil recovery.
Oxygen was discovered by Joseph Priestley (England) in 1774. The origin of the name comes from the Greek words oxy genes meaning acid and forming (acid former). It is colourless, odourless gas; pale blue liquid. Extremely reactive. Forms oxides with nearly all other elements except noble gases. It is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust and makes up almost 21 % of the atmosphere. Oxygen is obtained primarily from liquid air by fractional distillation. Small amounts are made in the laboratory by electrolysis of water. Used in steel making, welding and supporting life. Naturally occurring ozone (O3) in the upper atmosphere shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation.
Thermite is a stoichiometric powdered mixture of iron(II) oxide and aluminium for the reaction
The reaction is highly exothermic and the increase in temperature (over 2500 °C) is sufficient to melt the iron produced. It has been used for localized welding of steel object (e.g. railway lines) in the thermit process. Thermite is also used in incendiary bombs.
Thermoplastic is ap lastic polymer material that can be repeatedly softened through heating and hardened again by cooling. Examples are PVCor polistiren, which when heated, softens to enable moulding and welding, but on cooling hardens. If the finished product is not correct, the material can be heated and manipulated again.
Water gas (blue gas, synthesis gas) is a fuel gas used in industrial synthesis of organic chemicals, and in welding, glassmaking, and other high-temperature industrial applications. Water gas is made by passing steam over a bed of hot coal or coke. It mainly consists of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), contaminated with small amounts of CO2, N2, CH4, and O2.