CROATIAN-ENGLISH CHEMISTRY
DICTIONARY & GLOSSARY

 

Results 1–10 of 16 for blank determination
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blank determination   →   slijepa proba

Blank determination is a procedure of determining which follows all steps of analysis but in the absence of a sample. It is used for detection and compensation of systematic analysis mistakes.


blanching   →   blanširanje

1. Blanching is a heat treatment of foodstuffs to partially or completely inactivate the naturally occurring enzymes prior to freezing.

2. Blanching is a washing process for coins cleaning. The black surface layer of cupric oxide is removing by dipping the coins in hot dilute sulphuric acid (w(H2SO4) = 10 %).


analysis   →   analiza

Analysis. Chemical analysis is determination of the composition of a sample.


chlorinity   →   klorinitet

Originally chlorinity (symbol Cl) was defined as the weight of chlorine in grams per kilogram of seawater after the bromides and iodides had been replaced by chlorides. To make the definition independent of atomic weights, chlorinity is now defined as 0.3285233 times the weight of silver equivalent to all the halides.

The Mohr-Knudsen titration method served oceanographers for more than 60 years to determine salinity from chlorinity. This modification of the Mohr method uses special volumetric glassware calibrated directly in chlorinity units. The Mohr method uses potassium chromate (K2CrO4) as an indicator in the titration of chloride ions chloride (plus a small amount of bromide and iodide) with a silver nitrate (AgNO3) standard solution.

AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3

The other halides present are similarly precipitated.

A problem in the Mohr titration was that silver nitrate is not well suited for a primary standard. The Danish physicist Martin Knudsen (1871-1949) suggested that a standard seawater (Eau de mer Normale or Copenhagen Normal Water) be created and distributed to oceanographic laboratories throughout the world. This water was then used to standardize the silver nitrate solutions. In this way all chlorinity determinations were referred to one and the same standard which gave great internal consistency.

The relationship between chlorinity Cl and salinity S as set forth in Knudsen's tables is

S = 0.30 + 1.805Cl

In 1962, however, a better expression for the relationship between total dissolved salts and chlorinity was found to be

S (‰) = 1.80655 Cl (‰)

cyclic voltammetry   →   ciklička voltametrija

Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is an electrochemical measuring technique used for the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of electrode reactions. The potential of the working electrode is controlled (typically with a potentiostat) and the current flowing through the electrode is measured. It is a linear-weep voltammetry with the scan continued in the reverse direction at the end of the first scan. This cycle can be repeated a number of times, and is used for corrosion studies.


ebullioscope   →   ebulioskop

Ebullioscope is device for determination of the boiling point.


electroanalytical chemistry   →   elektroanalitička kemija

Electroanalytical chemistry chemistry is the application of electrochemical cells and electrochemical techniques for chemical analysis. The analyte is dissolved in the electrolyte of the cell, and one can perform either qualitative analysis (determination of the type of constituents present) or quantitative analysis (determination of the amount of a given constituent).


Kjeldahl flask   →   Kjeldahlova tikvica

Kjeldahl flask is a round bottom flask with a long wide neck that is used in the determination of nitrogen by Kjeldahl’s method. The method was developed by the Danish chemist Johan Kjeldahl (1849-1900).

Kjeldahl flask

Kjeldahl’s method   →   Kjeldahlov postupak

Kjeldahl’s method is an analytical method for determination of nitrogen in certain organic compounds. The method was developed by the Danish chemist Johan Kjeldahl (1849-1900).

It involves addition of a small amount of anhydrous potassium sulphate to the test compound, followed by heating the mixture with concentrated sulphuric acid, often with a catalyst such as copper sulphate. As a result ammonia is formed. After alkalyzing the mixture with sodium hydroxyde, the ammonia is separated by distillation, collected in standard acid, and the nitrogen determined by back-titration.

Kjeldahl’s method for determination of nitrogen
  1. Kjeldahl flask for decomposition (500 ml – macro or 100 ml - micro)
  2. funnel for alkaline solution
  3. Wagner tube (drop catcher)
  4. condenser
  5. absorption flask with known volume of standard acid

nuclear magnetic resonance   →   nuklearna magnetska rezonancija

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a type of radio-frequency spectroscopy based on the magnetic field generated by the spinning of electrically charged atomic nuclei. This nuclear magnetic field is caused to interact with a very large (1 T - 5 T) magnetic field of the instrument magnet. NMR techniques have been applied to studies of electron densities and chemical bonding and have become a fundamental research tool for structure determinations in organic chemistry.


 

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